Social Media Glossary: A-D

 

“Anything” 2.0
Since Web 2.0 became a buzzword, it has become popular to add “2.0” to the end of common terms when describing a website. For example, the makeover of www.WhiteHouse.gov is termed “Government 2.0” because it puts a Web 2.0 face on a government website.

Address munging
The practice of disguising or munging an e-mail address to prevent it from being automatically collected and used as a target for people and organizations who send unsolicited bulk e-mail. Address munging is intended to disguise an e-mail address in a way that prevents computer software seeing the real address, or even any address at all, but still allows a human reader to reconstruct the original and contact the author: an email address such as, “no-one@example.com”, becomes “no-one at example dot com”, for instance. Any e-mail address posted in public is likely to be automatically collected by computer software used by bulk emailers — a process known as e-mail address harvesting — and addresses posted on webpages, Usenet or chat rooms are particularly vulnerable to this.

Private e-mail sent between individuals is highly unlikely to be collected, but e-mail sent to a mailing list that is archived and made available via the web or passed onto a Usenet news server and made public, may eventually be scanned and collected.

Administrator (Short form: “admin”)
Manage the technical details required for running the site. As such, they may promote (and demote) members to moderators, manage the rules, create sections and sub-sections, as well as perform any database operations (database backup etc). Administrators often also act as moderators. Administrators may also make forum-wide announcements, or change the appearance (known as the skin) of a forum. The term prune used extensively in administration panels is synonymous with delete or remove. The term comes from pruning, the practice of removing diseased, non-productive, or otherwise unwanted portions from a plant.

Advocates
Can be existing customers, or supporters of a company, the goal is to recognize advocates and develop a program of support that in terms results in increased community activity on a company’s sites and earns media across media and social media.

Agent Scripting
Provides the ability to add additional content to a workspace. Agent scripts are components that is created and inserted into workspaces just like a workspace control, and each script can be used on multiple workspaces. Scripts can contain multiple pages with controls and fields similar to those that can be added to workspaces, and branching logic can be used to guide agents to different pages based on actions they take on a script page. In addition, one can add script rules, which are similar to workspace rules.

Aggregation
The process of gathering and remixing content from blogs and other websites that provide RSS feeds. The results may be displayed in an aggregator website like Bloglines or Google Reader, or directly on your desktop using software often also called a newsreader.

Aggregator
A place where content is pulled from multiple sources, and presented/consolidated in one place.

AJAX / XML
These are terms describing the methodology and technology used to create Web 2.0 pages.
AJAX means Asynchronous Java and XML and is used to make web pages more responsive while avoiding the need to load the page each time new information is needed.
XML, which stands for Extensible Markup Language, is used to make the website more interactive.

Alerts
Search engines allow you to specify words, phrases or tags that you want checked periodically, with results of those searches returned to you by email. They may also be able to read the searches by RSS feed. This form of search allow them to check whether they, their organisation, their blog or blog item has been mentioned elsewhere, and so to respond if they wish.

Algorithm
Major search engines, Google, Yahoo! and MSN all use their sophisticated proprietary algorithms to determine which websites and web pages rank in which position in the SERPs. These algorithms used by the major search engines are complex, hard to decipher and constantly undergo refinement and updates.

Anchor text
The text used when linking to a website. For instance, a link that points a website saying ‘flower delivery’ uses the anchor text “flower delivery”.

Apps
Short for application. An app is a piece of software. It can run on the Internet, on ones computer, or their phone or other electronic device.

Archive
May refer to topics from an online discussion that has been closed but saved for later reference. On blogs, archives are collections of earlier items usually organised by week or month. They may still be able to comment on archived items.

Articles
Short editorials which can address any topic relevant to a website.

ASP
Also known as Classic ASP or ASP Classic, was Microsoft’s first server-side script engine for dynamically-generated web pages. Initially released as an add-on to Internet Information Services (IIS) via the Windows NT 4.0 Option Pack, it was subsequently included as a free component of Windows Server (since the initial release of Windows 2000 Server). It has now been superseded by ASP.NET

Asynchronous
Communications are independent of time or place, and messages go to and fro rather than appearing in one place at almost the same time (synchronous communication). Examples of asynchronous communication are email lists, bulletin boards and forums.

Atom
Applies to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub or APP) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.

Attachment
An attachment can be almost any file. When someone attaches a file to a post they are uploading the file to the forums’ server. Forums usually have very strict limit on what can be attached and what cannot (among which the size of the files in question).

Attention Age
An idea that the current period of time, which overlaps and builds off of the Information Age, will be characterized by the increasing commoditization of attention as it relates to the increasing abundance of information available, particularly on the Internet. The Attention Age is marked by the ability of individuals to create and consume information instantly and freely as well as share it on the Internet using social media. The period is believed to have begun with the emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and social media in the Noughties (2000–2009).

Audibles
Sound that is capable of being heard

Audioblog
A blog where the posts consist mainly of voice recordings sent by mobile phone, sometimes with some short text message added for metadata purposes

Authenticity
Is the sense that something or someone is “real”. Blogs enable people to publish content, and engage in conversations, that show their interests and values, and so help them develop an authentic voice online.

Autocasting
Automated form of podcasting that allows bloggers and blog readers to generate audio versions of text blogs from RSS feeds.

Avatars
Are graphical images representing people. This the representation of someone in virtual worlds. One can build a visual character with the body, clothes, behaviours, gender and name of his choice. This may or may not be an authentic representation of someone’s self.

Average Visit Time
The elapsed time from the first to the last page request that constitutes a visit, adding the average time per page for such a visit.

Back channel
Communications are private emails or other messages sent by the facilitator or between individuals during public conferencing. They can have a significant effect on the way that public conversations go.

BBCode
Is a lightweight markup language used to format posts in many message boards. The available tags are usually indicated by square brackets surrounding a keyword, and they are parsed by the message board system before being translated into a markup language that web browsers understand—usually HTML or XHTML.

Black Hat
Broad category of unethical practices, tactics and strategies that can achieve short term results in the SERPs but will likely end up causing a website to be banned from the search engines.

Blawg
A law blog.

Blocking
If someone annoying keeps sending notes to ones inbox, one can block him or her. He also have control over who posts to his guest book, and can decide whether the comments area on his personal journal is open to everyone, just to friends, or to no one.

Blog Award
Is an award for the best blog in a given category. Some blog awards are based on a public vote and others are based on a fixed set of criteria applied by a panel of judges.

Blog Carnival
A blog article that contains links to other articles covering a specific topic. Most blog carnivals are hosted by a rotating list of frequent contributors to the carnival, and serve to both generate new posts by contributors and highlight new bloggers posting matter in that subject area.

Blog client (Weblog client)
Software to manage (post, edit) blogs from operating system with no need to launch a web browser. A typical blog client has an editor, a spell-checker and a few more options that simplify content creation and editing.

Blogger
Person who runs a blog. Also blogger.com, a popular blog hosting web site. Rarely: weblogger.

Bloggernacle
Blogs written by and for Mormons (a portmanteau of “blog” and “Tabernacle)”. Generally refers to faithful Mormon bloggers and sometimes refers to a specific grouping of faithful Mormon bloggers.

Bloggies
One of the most popular blog awards

Blogosphere
Is the term used to describe the totality of blogs on the Internet, and the conversations taking place within that sphere.

Blogroll
Is a list of sites displayed in the sidebar of blog, showing who the blogger reads regularly.

Blogs
Generally designed in journal format, with dated items of content in reverse chronological order, self-published by bloggers. Items – sometimes called posts – may have keyword tags associated with them, are usually available as feeds, and often allow commenting. Traditional websites have pages as their main building blocks, with an address link (URL) for each page, and menus to provide navigation between them. Readers can comment on, and link to items. Because blog items can be made available from the site in a stream of content – known as an RSS feed – you can subscribe to them and read them through a newsreader or aggregator. Blogs are easy to set up, and update.

Blogware
A list of other blogs that a blogger might recommend by providing links to them (usually in a sidebar list).

Bookmarking
Is saving the address of a website or item of content, either in your browser, or on a social bookmarking site such as del.icio.us, face book, YouTube, twitter, etc. If you add tags, others can easily use your research too, and the social bookmarking site becomes an enormous public library. If groups agree the tags they’ll use, it makes collaborative research much easier.

Botnet
Is a jargon term for a collection of software agents, or robots, that run autonomously and automatically. The term is most commonly associated with malicious software, but it can also refer to the network of computers using distributed computing software[citation needed]. While botnets are often named after their malicious software name, there are typically multiple botnets in operation using the same malicious software families, but operated by different criminal entities.

Brand infiltration
Is a marketing practice that takes a specific approach to strategy, creativity and success tracking, where all three are driven by a thorough understanding of the business objective at hand. Brand infiltration insists that the organizational design of the marketing agency includes a team with broad skills, but that each staff member has creative and strategic leanings.

Branding Community
a community formed on the basis of attachment to a product or marque. Recent developments in marketing and in research in consumer behaviour result in stressing the connection between brand, individual identity and culture. Among the concepts developed to explain the behaviour of consumers, the concept of a brand community focuses on the connections between consumers. A brand community can be defined as an enduring self-selected group of actors sharing a system of values, standards and representations (a culture) and recognizing bonds of membership with each other and with the whole.

BROG
(We)blog Research on Genre project is the acronym for (We)blog Research on Genre, a project based in the School of Library and Information Science at Indiana University, Bloomington. The BROG project is an informal research collaboration dedicated to the conduct of empirical, social science research on weblogs. Founded and directed by Susan C. Herring, a professor of Information Science at Indiana University and established researcher of computer-mediated communication, its past and present members include faculty, graduate students, and visiting scholars at Indiana University.

Browser
Is the tool used to view websites, and access all the content available there onscreen or by downloading. Browsers may also have features including the ability to read feeds, write blog items, view and upload photos to photosharing sites. Browsers have become the central tool for using social media as more and more tools previously used on our desktops are becoming free online.

Bulletin board system
Is a computer system running software that allows users to connect and log in to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, a user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, and exchanging messages with other users, either through electronic mail or in public message boards. Many BBSes also offer on-line games, in which users can compete with each other, and BBSes with multiple phone lines often provide chat rooms, allowing users to interact with each other.

Bulletin boards
Were the early vehicles for online collaboration, where users connected with a central computer to post and read email-like messages. They were the electronic equivalent of public notice boards. The term is still used for forums

Buzz Monitoring
Buzz (social media) monitoring means keeping tabs on discussions relevant to a brand/product/service happening across social media sites around the web for analytical purposes.

Churn
The movement of top ranking websites within an industry.

Citizen journalism
Also known as “public”, “participatory”, “democratic” or “street journalism“; the concept of members of the public “playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analysing and disseminating news and information,” according to the seminal 2003 report We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information. Authors Bowman and Willis say: “The intent of this participation is to provide independent, reliable, accurate, wide-ranging and relevant information that a democracy requires.”

Citizen media
Citizen media is a term coined by Clemencia Rodriguez, who defined this concept as ‘the transformative processes they bring about within participants and their communities.’ It refers to the ways in which audiences can also become participants in the media using the different resources offered, such as blogs, vlogs, podcasts, digital storytelling, participatory video and more, and may be distributed via television, radio, internet, email, movie theatre, DVD and many other forms.

Click
A single measurement of website traffic. Also referred to as a ‘page impression’ or ‘pageview’. Bear in mind that different analytics packages and tracking tools define these terms in different ways. Therefore, it’s important to refer to the definition referred to in your analytics package.

Cloaking
Best understood as the concealing of information from either a search engine or the user either for a malicious reason or a design consideration. For instance, when a website shows the search engines one version of a web page but deliberately hides other information from the user in the web browser this can be considered cloaking. There are various types of cloaking, some more ethical than others.

Cloud / Cloud Computing
The Internet is sometimes referred to as the “Cloud”. Cloud Computing refers to the recent trend of using the internet as an application platform, such as using an online version of a word processor as opposed to using a word processor that is installed on your computer’s hard drive. It also refers to using the Internet as a service, like storing all of your pictures online at Flickr rather than keeping them on your hard drive.

Calendar
The calendar, appearing as a tool on group pages, serves two functions. It provides an easy way to list and update events, holidays or notable dates coming up. It also has a slick invitation tool that helps you organize events, keeping track of who has RSVPd and who hasn’t.

Canonical Homepage
The canonical homepage is the page that is considered to be the lead/preferred homepage. A common problem that many websites encounter where both the www and non-www version of a website are indexed. For instance, the following URLs are the home page of the website when in fact the search engines recognise these to be four different pages; domain.com/, www.domain.com/, www.domain.com/index.html, www.domain.com/default.html.

CAPTCHA
This refers to those crazy letters and numbers you have to decipher and type in when filling out a form on the web. It is a mechanism used to check whether or not you are human and is used to prevent spam.

Care Circle
That’s our name for when someone uses the Group Tool to create an area to help honour or assist a sick person by providing aid, prayers and updates.

Categories
Are pre-specified ways to organise content – for example, a set of keywords that you can use but not add to when posting on a site. They form part of a taxonomy.

Champions
In order to get conversations started in an online community, one need a group of enthusiasts willing and confident to get things moving by posting messages, responding, and helping others.

Charity Badge
It is called a “Donation Tool” but you may hear some people refer to it as a Charity Badge. It is rename because it is use for both charities and houses of worship can use it to raise money.

Chat
Is interaction on a web site, with a number of people adding text items one after the other into the same space at (almost) the same time. A place for chat – chat room – differs from a forum because conversations happen in “real time”, rather as they do face to face.

Chat room
Is primarily used by mass media to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. The term can thus mean any technology ranging from real-time online chat over instant messaging and online forums to fully immersive graphical social environments. People also usually use slang in chat rooms, this is called text talk. e.g. “Lol”

CMS
Short for ‘Content management system’. Refers to the system that is used to manage a website and its contents.

Collaboration
“Social media tools from email lists to virtual worlds offer enormous scope for collaboration. Low-risk activities like commenting, social bookmarking, chatting and blogging help develop the trust necessary for collaboration. At greater length: Collaboration is one of the higher goals of social networking – being able to discuss and work with people across boundaries of organisation, time and space. The tools to achieve this extend from email with attachments through web-based workspaces with messaging, file storage, calendars and other tools. With the right equipment and connections you can talk to and see each other, text, sketch and transfer files almost instantly. You can set up a workspace in a virtual world, and collaborate with other avatars. However, the conditions for successful collaboration are more human and cultural than technical, with the bottom line being trust. Bloggers maintain that the conversational and authentic tone of the medium helps create conditions for collaboration. Sharing, commenting, chatting, co-authoring allow low-risk explorations of who you would feel comfortable working with.”

Collaborative blog
A blog (usually focused on a single issue or political stripe) on which multiple users enjoy posting permission. Also known as group blog.

Collective intelligence
Has been defined by George Pór as the capacity of a human community to evolve toward higher order complexity thought, problem-solving and integration through collaboration and innovation. For a network to develop this “mind of its own” there needs to be a willingness among members to share and collaborate. Collective intelligence is not the same as the Wisdom of Crowds, where individual preferences and decisions may aggregate to produce better results without people consciously collaborating. The latter is more market oriented, the former more cooperative.

Comment spam
Like e-mail spam. Robot “spambots” flood a blog with advertising in the form of bogus comments. A serious problem that requires bloggers and blog platforms to have tools to exclude some users or ban some addresses in comments.

Comments
Blogs may allow readers to add comments under items, and may also provide a feed for comments as well as for main items. That mean you can keep up with conversations without having to revisit the site to check whether anything has been added.

Commitment
The “social” aspect of social media means that tools are most useful when other people commit to using them too. Commitment will depend on people’s degree of interest in a subject, capability online, preparedness to share with others, degree of comfort in a new place, as well as the usability of the site or tool. If people are passionate about a subject and desperate to share and research, they will usually clamber over technical problems. But making things technically easier – while desirable – won’t usually gain people’s commitment on its own.

Communities
Are groups of people communicating mainly through the Internet. They may simply have a shared interest to talk about … or more formally learn from each other and find solutions as a Community of Practice. Online communities may use email lists or forums, where content is centralised. Communities may also emerge from conversations around or between bloggers. List or forum-based communities can be difficult to join up with blog-based communities because of the different ways they operate technically. While communities do emerge organically, some community-building is necessary if there are specific goals to achieve.

Community building
Is the process of recruiting potential community or network participants, helping them to find shared interests and goals, use the technology, and develop useful conversations. A number of different roles may be involved.

Community Q&A
A forum where members of the infection prevention and control community can meet in cyberspace to ask questions about infection prevention strategies and garner answers from clinical experts, as well as share comments, ideas and suggestions for fighting healthcare-acquired infections.

Conference
It is what happens in a forum – it is the conversations of those involved, organised around topics, threads, and a theme or subject.

Configurable Agent Workspaces

Allows you to tailor the content and format of the desktop to the persona, skill level, and function of the agent. This includes hot keys that drive efficiency, by setting up single keys to perform common functions, such a escalating or closing a case.

Connections
As high-speed, always-on, broadband connections becomes more widely available, it is easy to forget that the speed and nature of Internet connection available to people on a network will determine what tools they can use. If people are still using slow telephone dialup they may have problems with video and voice over IP.

Connectivism
Is the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self-organization theories. Learning is a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing. Connectivism is driven by the understanding that decisions are based on rapidly altering foundations. New information is continually being acquired. The ability to draw distinctions between important and unimportant information is vital. The ability to recognize when new information alters the landscape based on decisions made yesterday is also critical. In other words, “know-how” and “know-what” are being supplemented with “know-where” (the understanding of where to find the knowledge when it is needed), and meta-learning is becoming just as important as the learning itself.

Contact Centre Analytics
Gives a real-time visibility into consumer interactions with more than 600 standard analytics reports to help you measure your most critical performance metrics. It features easy-to-use, drag-and-drop report and dashboard design capabilities. It helps the contact centre staff leverage the knowledge they gain—- for their customers’ benefit.

Contact Centre Integration
Enables seamless escalation to the agent desktop.

Content
Is used here to describe text, pictures, video and any other meaningful material that is on the Internet.

Content management systems
Described as the Swiss Army knives of social media. They are software suites offering the ability to create static web pages, document stores, blog, wikis, and other tools. CMSs have the advantage of offering comprehensive solutions – but can be challenging to configure, and each of the different tools may not be quite as good as a stand-along version. Unless one have some technical skills, they are best suited for situations where one can employ a web developer to work with, and provide some continuing support.

Contextual Workspaces
Presents only the information the agent needs in the context of the conversation and what is required to address the customer issue at hand.

Control
Social networking is difficult to control because if people can’t say something in one place they can blog or comment elsewhere. That can be challenging for hierarchical organisations used to centrally-managed websites.

Conversation
“Through blogging, commenting or contributing to forums is the currency of social networking. At more length: A popular perception of bloggers is of people ranting on a virtual soapbox without knowing who is listening. While that may be true for some, the real rewards of blogging come from exchanges with others. Every blogger needs an audience – and preferably one adding comments. Even better if another blogger picks up his item, adds a link and a little interpretation, publishes on their site, and puts a trackback to him. That way he pick up readers coming in from the other site, and know from the trackback he have someone with whom to start a conversation. Even if there isn’t a trackback, he can set up searches to alert him when someone mentions his name, site or conversation thread on the Net.”

Copyright
Sharing through social media is enhanced by attaching a Creative Commons license specifying, for example, that content may be re-used with attribution, provided that a similar license is then attached by the new author. In the spirit of openness and sharing generally prevalent among social networkers, one will often find content labelled with a copyright license that allows others to re-use the material provided they give attribution.

Crawl
The action that a search engine spider does when collecting information from a website can be referred to as ‘crawling’. For example, search engines such as Google ‘crawl’ the Internet in order to build their searchable database called the ‘index’.

Crowdsourcing
Refers to harnessing the skills and enthusiasm of those outside an organisation who are prepared to volunteer their time contributing content and solving problems.

CSS
Is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.

CTI
A broad range of computer telephony integration options ranging from screen pop to fully integrated desktop softphone that enables functions such as dial, answers/release, hold, conference, and transfer. CTI improves agent productivity while providing a more personalized customer experience.

Culture
Social media only works well in a culture of openness, where people are prepared to share. For that reason, commitment and attitude are as important as tools. Creative two-way communication and collaboration is unlikely to flourish in an organisation where the norm is top-down control. When people in that sort of culture talk about networking they may have a hub and spokes model in mind, with them having some central control.

Customer engagement
Refers to the engagement of customers with one another, with a company or a brand. The initiative for engagement can be either consumer- or company-led and the medium of engagement can be on or offline.

Customised Voice Applications
Leverages Right Now’s best practices in voices application discovery design so customers can tailor custom DTMF and speech-enabled voice applications to the specific/unique needs within their environments.

Cybernetics
Cybernetics is pre-eminent when a system (biological/organisational/structural) is involved in a closed signal loop, where action by the system in an environment causes some change in the environment, and that change manifests to the system via information or feedback. This causes the system to adapt to new conditions and changes its behaviour.

Cyberspace
Has been widely used as a general term for the Internet or World Wide Web. More recently blogosphere has emerged as a term for interconnected blogs.

Data Scraping
A technique in which a computer program extracts data from human-readable output coming from another program.

Databases
Consists of an organized collection of data for one or more multiple uses. One way of classifying databases involves the type of content, for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, image. Other classification methods start from examining database models or database architectures: see below. Software organizes the data in a database according to a database model. As of 2010[update] the relational model occurs most commonly. Other models such as the hierarchical model and the network model use a more explicit representation of relationships.

Default
In computing, refers to the settings on any device that come “out of the box”. It may be used loosely to suggest “lowest common” … so when trying to set up ways of collaborating online you may hear reference to email-with-attachments as the default. The challenge in social networking is that you may need to move from default mode to something customised to your requirements.

Delicious (del.icio.us) is a social bookmarking website, for storing, sharing and discovering web bookmarks.

Democracy
Social networking and media are potentially attractive to those who want to revive representative democracy, and those who promote participative approaches … or both. Social media offers politicians and their constituents another communication channel. It also offers a wide range of methods for people to discuss, deliberate and take action.

Demographic Variable
An aggregate term used to refer to age, gender, household income, or region (state).

Desktop Blogging Client
An off-line blog management (posting, editing and archiving) tool

Desktop Flow
Provides the ability to step agents through one or many business processes depending on the costumer or interaction, tying together scripts, contextual workspaces, and guides, while at the same time automating tasks in the background.

Digg
Digg is a community based, news article website, where people can share links and stories from around the web.

Discussion
Forums prefer a premise of open and free discussion and often adopt de facto standards. Most common topics on forums include questions, comparisons, polls of opinion as well as debates. Because of their volatile and random behaviour it is not uncommon for nonsense or unsocial behaviour to sprout as people lose temper, especially if the topic is controversial. Poor understanding of differences in values of the participants is a common problem on forums. Because replies to a topic are often wording aimed at someone’s point of view, discussion will usually go slightly off into several directions as people question each others validity, sources and so on. Circular discussion and ambiguity in replies can carry out arguments for several tens of posts of a thread eventually ending when everyone gives up or another similar debate takes it over. It is not uncommon for a style over substance or ad hominem debates to be the ones to take it over.

DNA
Decide DNA, a leading search marketing technology platform in the search industry.

Domain
The unique name that forms the basis of a URL, such as www.yahoo.com.

Donation Tool
A tool that lets you raise money for a charity or house of worship. One can post it on his personal or group page and when someone gives a donation through their badge, he gets credit.

Double posting
One common faux pas on Internet forums is to post the same message twice. Users sometimes post versions of a message that are only slightly different, especially in forums where they are not allowed to edit their earlier posts. Multiple posting instead of editing prior posts can artificially inflate a user’s post count. Multiple posting can be unintentional; a user’s browser might display an error message even though the post has been transmitted or a user of a slow forum might become impatient and repeatedly hit the submit button. Multiple posting can also be used as a method of trolling or spreading forum spam. A user may also send the same post to several forums, which is termed crossposting. The term derives from Usenet, where crossposting was an accepted practice; however, it causes problems in web forums, which lack the ability to link such posts, so replies in one forum are not visible to people reading the post in other forums.

Download
To retrieve a file or other content from an Internet site to your computer or other device. See Upload.

Downstream
Downstream websites or industries are those visited immediately after leaving the subject website.

Dream blog
A journal in which dream experiences are recorded. A dream journal might include a record of nightly dreams, personal reflections and waking dream experiences. It is often used in the study of dreams and psychology. Dream journals are also used by people trying to achieve a lucid dream. They are also regarded as a useful catalyst for remembering dreams. The use of a dream diary was recommended by Ann Faraday in The Dream Game as an aid to memory and a way to preserve details, many of which are otherwise rapidly forgotten no matter how memorable the dream originally seemed. The very act of recording a dream can have the effect of improving future dream recall. Keeping a dream journal conditions a person to view remembering dreams as important. Traditionally, dreams have been recorded in a paper journal (as text, drawings, paintings, etc…) or via an audio recording device (as narrative, music or imitations of other auditory experiences from the dream.) Now with the internet, many sites offer the ability to create a digital dream journal.

Drive Sales
Through word-of-mouth recommendations other costumers.

Duplicate content
Original website content that is duplicated or shared in common across more than one website or webpage is considered duplicate.